Center for Ethics and the Rule of Law, UPenn Law

Department of Security, Fire, and Emergency Management, John Jay College of Criminal Justice

Institute for Law and Public Policy, Cal U

Modern War Institute, United States Military Academy

Opinio Juris (Jens Ohlin et. al.)

Further Reading

This Day in U.S. Military History
Responses to Targeted Killing
Targeted Killing in Current Law
Memoranda, Reports, and Cases on Targeted Killing
Relation between Domestic Law and Targeted Killing
Press Coverage on National Secrecy
Contemporary Issues on Secrecy and the Rule of Law
Philosophical Writings on Publicity Conditions
Classification and Executive Privilege
Secrecy and Military Operations
Secrecy and Civil Rights
The Ethics of Leaks: When to Release Information, When to Prosecute
Treatment of Detainees
Just War
National Security

Yet Even Further Reading

• Antonio Cassese:
The Multifaceted Criminal Notion of Terrorism in International Law [DOC]

• Michael L. Gross:
Assassination and Targeted Killing: Law Enforcement, Execution or Self-Defence?, 23 J. APPLIED PHIL. 323 (2006) [PDF]

• David Kretzmer:
Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: Extra-Judicial Executions or Legitimate Means of Defence?, 16 EUR. J. INT’L L. 171 (2005) [PDF]

• Jeff McMahan:
The Ethics of Killing in War, 114 ETHICS 693 (2004) [PDF]

• Jeff McMahan:
Killing in War (2009)

• Andrew Altman and Christopher Heath Wellman:
From Humanitarian Intervention to Assassination: Human Rights and Political Violence, 118 ETHICS 228 (2008) [PDF]

• Daniel Statman:
Targeted Killing, 5 THEORETICAL INQUIRIES L. 179 (2004) [PDF]

• David Rodin:
War and Self-Defense (2005)

• Francis M. Kamm:
Failures of Just War Theory: Terror, Harm, and Justice, 114 ETHICS 650 (2004)

• Robert Chesney
Who May Be Killed? Anwar Al-Awlaki as a Case Study in the International Legal Regulation of Lethal Force

• John C. Dehn & Kevin Jon Heller
Debate: Targeted Killing: The Case of Anwar Al-Aulaqi

• Steven R. David
Israel’s Policy of Targeted Killing, 17 ETHICS & INT’L AFF. 111 (2003) [PDF]

• Tamar Meisels
Combatants – Lawful and Unlawful, 26 LAW & PHIL. 31 (2007) [PDF]

• Philip Alston
The CIA and Targeted Killings Beyond Borders [PDF]

• Kenneth Anderson
Targeted Killing and Drone Warfare: How We Came to Debate Whether There is a ‘Legal Geography of War’

• Mary Ellen O’Connell
The Right to Life in War and Peace: A Legal and Moral Critique of Targeted Killing

• Lesa Jansen
Obama to release document on targeted killings to Congress
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• Paul Waldman
Game of Drones

• Dillon Zhou
China Drones Prompt Fears of a Drone Race with the US 

• Drone Wars UK
Mapping Drone Proliferation: UAVs in 76 Countries 

• Chris Cole, Drone Wars UK
Drone Wars Briefing

• United States Government Accountability Office
Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on National Security, Homeland Defense, and Foreign Operations, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives

• Carla Anne Robbins
Drones: Transparency on Rules for Their Use is a Must

• Stephen Vladeck
Why a “Drone Court” Won’t Work- But (Nominal) Damages Might…

• Deborah Pearlstein
These Aren’t the Courts We’re Looking For

• Scott Shane
Debating a Court to Vet Drone Strikes

• Kimberly Dozier
Brennan Open to Special Court for Drone Strikes

• Joe Wolverton
Congress Considers Special Drone Court; UN Investigates Deadly Drone Strikes

• James Robertson
Judges Shouldn’t Decide About Drone Strikes

• Ryan Goodman
The Lesser Evil: What the Obama Administration Isn’t Telling You About Drones: The Standard Rule is Capture, Not Kill

• Barbara Starr, Pam Benson and Tom Cohen
Brennan Defends Al-Awlaki Drone Strike as Part of War with Al Qaeda

• Tabassum Zakaria
Lawmakes raise concerns about Obama’s drone policies

•  Patrick McGreevy
California lawmakers propose rules, tax breaks for drone aircraft

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Targeted Killing in Current Law

• Orna Ben-Naftalit & Keren R. Michaeli:
‘We Must Not Make a Scarecrow of the Law’: A Legal Analysis of the Israeli Policy of Targeted Killings, 36 CORNELL INT’L L.J. 233 (2003) [PDF]

• William C. Banks and Peter Raven-Hansen:
Targeted Killing and Assassination: The U.S. Legal Framework, 37 U. RICH. L. REV. 667 (2003) [PDF]

• Richard Murphy & Afsheen John Radsan:
Due Process and the Targeted Killing of Terrorists, 31 CARDOZO L. REV. 405 (2009) [PDF]

• Mary Ellen O’Connell:
Unlawful Killing with Combat Drones: A Case Study of Pakistan, 2004-2009 (Notre Dame Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 09-43, 2010) (PDF)

• Gabriella Blum and Philip Heymann:
Law and Policy of Targeted Killing, 1 HARV. NAT’L SEC. J. 145 (2010) [PDF]

• Nils Melzer:
Targeted Killing in International Law (2008)

• Jordan J. Praust:
Self-Defense Targetings of Non-State Actors and Permissibility of U.S. Use of Drones in Pakistan, 19.2 J. TRANSNAT’L L. & POL’Y 237 (2010) [PDF]

• Kenneth Anderson:
Targeted Killing in U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy and Law (Brookings Inst., Working Paper, 2009) [PDF]

• J. Nicholas Kendall:
Israeli Counter-Terrorism: “Targeted Killings” Under International Law, 80 N.C. L. REV. 1069 (2002) [PDF]

• Michael L. Gross
Moral Dilemmas of Modern War: Torture, Assassination, and Blackmail in an Age of Asymmetric Conflict (2009)

• Video:
Wittes v. O’Connell on Targeted Killing and Drones (2010), available at

Opinio Juris on Targeted Killing

The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Federal Torture Statutes, 18 U.S.C § 2340 (A)-(B)

Federal Torture Statutes, 10 U.S.C § 948r

International Committee of the Red Cross, Clarifying the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities

• Office of Legal Counsel White Paper Summarizes 2010 Targeted Killing Memorandum:
The Justice Department’s White Paper on Targeted Killing by Jameel Jaffer
Department of Justice White Paper

Memoranda, Reports, and Cases on Targeted Killing

HCJ 769/02 Public Committee Against Torture v. Israel [2005] (Israeli “Targeted Killings Case) [PDF]

Memorandum of Law on Executive Order 12333 and Assassination, W. Hays Parks (1989) [PDF]

Drones II: Hearing before the H. Sub. Comm. on Nat’l Sec. & Foreign Aff., 111th Cong. (2010) (statement of Kenneth Anderson) [PDF]

Rise of the Drones: Unmanned Systems and the Future of War: Hearing before the H. Sub. Comm. on Nat’l Sec. & Foreign Aff., 111th Cong. (2010) (statement of Kenneth Anderson) [PDF]

• Harold Koh, Legal Adviser to Dept. of State, Address at American Society of International Law: International Law and the Obama Administration (March 25, 2010), available at

Al-Aulaqi Decision

The Year of the Drone (Data on Aerial Drone Strikes)

Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, Philip Alston [PDF]

Al-Shimari Opinion Dismissing Appeal [PDF]
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Relation between Domestic Law and Targeted Killing

• Lawrence Alexander:
The Doomsday Machine: Proportionality, Punishment and Prevention, 63 MIND 199 (1980) [PDF]

• Claire Finkelstein:
Threats and Preemptive Practices, 5 LEGAL THEORY 311 (1999) [PDF]

• Amos Guiora:
Targeted Killing as Active Self-Defense, 36 CASE W. RES. J. INT’L L. 319 (2004) [PDF]

Tenn v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1984) (fleeing suspect case) [PDF]

Katko v. Briney, 183 N.W.2d 257 (Iowa 1971) (spring-gun case) [PDF]
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Press Coverage on National Secrecy

Inside the Killing Machine Newsweek

• Gary Solis
CIA drone attacks produce America’s own unlawful combatants

• Geoffrey Robertson
Is It Lawful to Kill Gaddafi?

• Ken Dilanian
CIA has slashed its terrorism interrogation role

• Charlie Savage
Secret U.S. Memo Made Legal Case to Kill a Citizen New York Times

• Scott Horton
Justifying the Killing of an American

• David Cole
Killing Citizens in Secret

• Ahmed Al-Haj
Yemen Says Air-Strike Kills Al-Qaeda Media Chief

• Eric Schmitt and Thom Shanker
U.S. Debated Cyberwarfare in Attack Plan on Libya

• Morris Davis
Combatant Immunity and the Death of Anwar al-Awlaqi

• Nicholas Schmidle
Getting Bin Ladin [PDF]

• David S. Cloud and David Zucchino
Multiple missteps led to drone killing U.S. troops in Afghanistan

• Spencer Ackerman
CIA Drones Kill Large Groups Without Knowing Who They Are

• Daphne Eviatar
CIA Drones Gone Wild? [PDF]

• Adam Entous
US Tightens Drone Rules

• Daniel Swift
Drone Knowns and Drone Unknowns [PDF]

Iran’s downing of U.S. drone rattles Washington Tehran Times

• Scott Shane and David E. Sanger
Drone Crash in Iran Reveals Secret U.S. Surveillance Effort

• Peter W. Singer
Do Drones Undermine Democracy? [PDF] New York Times

• Eric Schmitt and Michael S. Schmidt
U.S. Drones Patrolling Its Skies Provoke Outrage in Iraq New York Times

• Karen DeYoung
ACLU sues to force release of drone attack records The Washington Post
The complaint [PDF] by the ACLU

• Editorial
America’s drone wars Los Angeles Times

• John Sifton
A Brief History of Drones The Nation

• Jackie Calmes, Charlie Savage, Jo Becker and Scott Shane
A Measure of Change (series)

• Daniel Klaidman
Drones: How Obama Learned to Kill Excerpt from Klaidman’s Kill or Capture: The War on Terror and the Soul of the Obama Presidency.

• David Luban
What Would Augustine Do? The President, Drones, and Just War Theory

• Bruce Ackerman
Protect, Don’t Prosecute, Patriotic Leakers

• David Taintor
Poll: Americans Are The ‘Clear Outliers’ In Support For Drone Strikes

• Mark Mazzetti
The Drone Zone

Do drones increase the likelihood of war by lowering its cost?

• Marc Ambinder
10 Things You Didn’t Know About The National Security Agency Suveillance Program

• Mattea Kramer and Chris Hellman
‘Homeland Security’: The Trillion-Dollar Concept That No One Can Define
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Contemporary Issues on Secrecy and the Rule of Law

• Meir Dan-Cohen
Decision Rules and Conduct Rules: On Acoustic Separation in Criminal Law [PDF]

• Editorial
The Power to Kill New York Times

• Daniel Patrick Moynihan
Secrecy as Regulation [PDF]

• Daniel Patrick Moynihan
The Routinization of Secrecy [PDF]

• Seumas Miller and Michael J. Selgelid
Ethical and Philosophical Consideration of the Dual-use Dilemma in the Biological Sciences [PDF]

• Editorial
“Statement on scientific publication and security” fails to provide necessary guidelines [PDF] PNAS

• Journal Editors and Authors Group
Uncensored exchange of scientific results PNAS

• Statement of Anthony S. Fauci, M.D.
Dual Use Research of Concern: Balancing Benefits and Risks
Back to Top

Philosophical Writings on Publicity Conditions

• Kevin R. Davis
Kantian “Publicity” and Political Justice [PDF]

• Samuel Freeman
The burdens of public justification: constructivism, contractualism, and publicity [PDF]

• Thomas Hobbes
On the Office of Sovereign Representative [PDF]

• Charles Larmore
Public Reason [PDF]

• Macchiavelli
The Prince [PDF]

• Plato
The Noble Lie [PDF]

• John Rawls
Formal Conditions of Right [PDF]

• John Rawls
Two Concepts of Rules [PDF]

• Andrew Williams
Incentives, Inequality, and Publicity [PDF]
Back to Top

Classification and Executive Privilege

Mohamed v. Jeppensen Dataplan (9th District Court of Appeals) [PDF]

• David Carr
Blurred Line Between Espionage and Truth

• Andre Cohen
The Torture Memos: Ten Years Later

• Liza Goitein and J. William Leonard
America’s Unnecessary Secrets

• Gia Lee
The Presidents Secret [PDF] George Washington Law Review, 2007.

• Eric Posner and Adrian Vermeule
Terror in the Balance: Security, Liberty and the Courts; Introduction [PDF]

• Charlie Savage
Ex-C.I.A Officer Charged in Information Leak

• Max Weber
Economy and Society, Ch. 11: Bureaucracy” [PDF]

• US District Court- New York
Azmy v. DoD [PDF]
Back to Top

Secrecy and Military Operations

• US District Court: District of Columbia
Excerpt from “Al-Alaqi v. Obama” [PDF]

• John Brennan
The Ethics and Efficacy of the President’s Counterterrorism Strategy

• Editorial
America’s drone wars Los Angeles Times

• Justin Elliott
Obama Administration’s Drone Death Numbers Don’t Add up

• John Hart Ely
War and Responsibility, Ch 4-5 [PDF]

• Josh Gerstein
Judge losing patience with feds in targeted killing FOIA case

• Jack Goldsmith
Fire When Ready

• Kevin Govern
Warrant-Based Targeting [PDF]

• Karen Greenberg
Doubling down on 9/11

• Scott Horton
Justifying the Killing of an American

• W. Michael Reisman and James E. Baker
Regulating Covert Action, Ch. 1-2 [PDF]

• Charlie Savage
Secret U.S. Memo Made Legal Case to Kill a Citizen

• Kim Lane Scheppelle
The Sociology of Secrecy [PDF] Legal Secrets, Chapter 1

• Scott Shane
U.S. Attacks, Online and From the Air, Fuel Secrecy Debate

• Daniel Swift
Drone Knowns and Drone Unknowns [PDF]
Back to Top

Secrecy and Civil Rights

• Michael Dorf
Arlen Specter’s Swan Song: Mandating Cameras in the Supreme Court

• Editorial
Live, From the Supreme Court NY Times

• Editorial
Exceptional Court Coverage NY Times

• Amy Goodman
National Security Agency Whistleblower William Binney on Growing State Surveillance

• Adam D. Moore
Privacy, Security and Government Surveillance: Wikileaks and the New Accountability [PDF]

• Alan Rubel
Privacy and the USA Patriot Act: Rights, the Value of Right, and Autonomy [PDF]
Back to Top


The Ethics of Leaks: When to Release Information, When to Prosecute

• E.E.B. and K.E.M.
Plugging the Leak: The Case for a Legislative Resolution of the Conflict between the Demands of Secrecy and the Need for an Open Government [pdf]

• Alan M Katz
Government Information Leaks and the First Amendment [PDF]

• Tara McKelvey
Leak About Al Qaeda Plot and Double Agent Helps CIA, Could Scare Terrorists

• Heidi Kitrosser
Classified Information Leaks and Free Speech [PDF] University of Illinois Law Review, 2008.

• Derigan A. Silver
National Security and the Press: The Government’s Ability to Prosecute Journalists for the Possession or Publication of National Security Information [PDF]

• Geoffrey R. Stone
Prosecuting the Press for Publishing Classified Information [PDF]
Back to Top


• Bradley Cho
Spot the Hacker: Combating Cyberwarfare under the International Rule of Law

• Mark Clayton
Cyberwar timeline

• Roger Crisp
Cyberwarfare: No New Ethics Needed

• Adam Cummings, Todd Lewellen, David McIntire, Andrew P. Moore and Randall Trzeciak
Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity Involving Fraud in the U.S. Financial Services Sector

• Randall R. Dipert
Ethical Issues of Cyberwarfare

• Cordula Droege
No legal vacuum in cyber space

• Editorial
When the government kills

• Beverley Head
World teeters on cyber-war brink

• Council of Europe
Convention on Cybercrime

Presidential Policy Directive / PPD-8: National Preparedness

• Oona A. Hathaway, Rebecca Crootof, Philip Levitz, Haley Nix, Aileen Nowlan, William Perdue and Julia Spiegel
The Law of Cyber-Attack

China’s cyber espionage campaign described as “the greatest transfer of wealth in history”

• J. Nicholas Hoover
Cyber Attacks Becoming Top Terror Threat, FBI Says

• Bryan Krekel, Patton Adams and George Bakos
Occupying the Information High Ground: Chinese Capabilities for Computer Network Operations and Cyber Espionage

• James A. Lewis
Cybersecurity Assessing the Immediate Threat to the United States

• Patrick Lin, Fritz Allhoff, and Neil Rowe
Is It Possible to Wage a Just Cyberwar?

• A. Edward Major
Law and Ethics in Command Decision Making [PDF]

• Anna Mulrine
Cyberdefense: Should Americans be concerned about their privacy?

FBI: Cyber attacks – America’s top terror threat

• David E. Sanger and Eric Schmitt
Rise Is Seen in Cyberattacks Targeting U.S. Infrastructure

• Michael S. Schmidt
Cybersecurity Bill Is Blocked in Senate by G.O.P. Filibuster

• Michael S. Schmidt
Senators Force Weaker Safeguards Against Cyberattacks

International Strategy for Cyberspace [PDF]

•Susan W. Brenner with Leo L. Clarke
Civilians in Cyberwarfare: Conscripts [PDF]
Civilians in Cyberwarfare: Casualties [PDF]

• K. Saalbach
Methods and Practice [PDF]

• Nicole Perlroth
Virus Seeking Bank Data Is Tied to Attack on Iran

• Mary Ellen O’Connell
Cyber Security without Cyber War

• Homeland Security News Wire
US Always Ends up Regulating New Technologies for Public Safety

• Nicole Perlroth
Software Meant to Fight Crime Is Used to Spy on Dissidents

• Department of Defense
Strategy for Operating in Cyberspace

• United States Government Accountability Office
Defense Department Cyber Efforts: DOD Faces Challenges In Its Cyber Activities

• Eric Fischer
Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions

• Kenneth Geers
Strategic Cyber Security

• Stewart Baker
Draft Cybersecurity Executive Order Leaks

• Editorial
A New Kind of Warfare

• Brendan Sasso
White House Confirms Cybersecurity Order in the Works The Hill

• The White House
Cybersecurity Progress after President Obama’s Address

• Homeland Security News Wire
Civilian Cyberwarriors Not Motivated by Patriotism

• Cyberspace Policy review [PDF]

• John O. Brennan
John Brennan Response to Sen. Rockefeller on Cybersecurity Legislation [PDF]

• Sean Kanuck
Sovereign Discourse on Cyber Conflict Under International Law [PDF] Texas Law Review

• Thom Shanker and David E. Sanger
U.S. Suspects Iran Was Behind a Wave of Cyberattacks

• Michael N. Schmitt, General Editor
Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare

• Candace Yu
We Have an Antiquated Framework
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Treatment of Detainees

• Inspector General (Pentagon)
Investigation of Allegations of the use of Mind-altering Drugs to Facilitate Interrogation of Detainees

• Thelma Gutierrez
Investigation of Lawsuit: ICE drugging detainees set for deportation

• Jeffrey Kaye
A Guantanamo Connection? Documents Show CIA Stockpiled Antimalaria Drugs as “Incapacitating Agents”

• Christian M. Halliburton
Letting Katz out of the Bag: Cognitive Freedom and Fourth Amendment Fidelity [PDF]

Eric Holder’s Full Statement On Closing Investigation Of CIA Detainee Deaths
Back to Top


• Greg Miller
In interview, Yemeni president acknowledges approving U.S. drone strikes

• Steven G. Calabresi, Mark E. Berghausen & Skylar Albertson
The Rise and Fall of the Separation of Powers,” Northwestern University Law Review, 2012

• Vicki Divoll
The ‘Full Access Doctrine’: Congress’s Constitutional Entitlement to National Security Information from the Executive,” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 2011

• Keith E. Whittington and Daniel P. Carpenter
Executive Power in American Institutional Development,” Perspective on Politics, 2003.

• Sharon Anderson-Gold
“Terrorism and the Politics of Human Rights,” Social Philosophy Today, 2004.

• Omar Dahbour
Advocating Sovereignty in an Age of Globalization,” Journal of Social Philosophy, 2006.

• Jovana Davidovic
Are Humanitarian Military Interventions Obligatory?” Journal of Applied Philosophy, 2008.

• Renée De Nevers
Sovereignty and Ethical Argument in the Struggle against State Sponsors of Terrorism,” Journal of Military Ethics, 2007.

• Gerald Doppelt
Walzer’s Theory of Morality in International Relations,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1978.

• Michael Dusche
Human Rights, Autonomy and National Sovereignty,” Ethical Perspectives: Journal of the European Ethics Network, 2000.

• David Held
Law of States, Law of Peoples: Three Models of Sovereignty,” Legal Theory, 2002.

• Bernd Krehoff
Legitimate Political Authority and Sovereignty: Why States Cannot Be the Whole Story,” Res Publica: A Journal of Legal and Social Philosophy, 2008.

• Christopher Morris
The Very Idea of Popular Sovereignty: “We the People” Reconsidered,” Social Philosophy and Policy, 2000.

• James Nickel
Is Today’s International Human Rights System a Global Governance Regime,” Journal of Ethics: An International Philosophical Review, 2002.

• Mathias Risse
What to Say about the State,” Social Theory and Practice: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal of Social Philosophy, 2006.

• Michael Walzer
Philosophy and Public Affairs, 9 (September 1980): 209-229.

• Christopher Wellman
Taking Human Rights Seriously,” Journal of Political Philosophy,  2012.

• Marlene, Wind
Challenging Sovereignty? The USA and the Establishment of the International Criminal Courtr,” Ethics and Global Politics, 2009.

• Anthony J. Colangelo
Constitutional Limits on Extraterritorial Jurisdiction: Terrorism and the Intersection of National and
International Law
,” 48 Harv. Int’l L. J. 121 (2007)

• Robert J. Delahunty & John Choon Yoo
Executive Power v. International Law,” 30 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 73 (2007)

• Laura Donohue
Federalism and the Battle over Counterterrorist Law: State Sovereignty, Criminal Law Enforcement, and National Security,” 25 Stud. Conflict & Terrorism 1 (2002)

• Sharon Anderson-Gold
Terrorism and the Politics of Human Rights in Social Philosophy Today,” War and Terrorism, Volume 20, Rowan, John R (ed), 155-164

• John Yoo
George Washington and the Executive Power,” University of St. Thomas Journal of Law & Public Policy, 2010

• John Yoo
Unitary, Executive or Both?” University of Chicago Law Review, 2009

• John Yoo
Andrew Jackson and Presidential Power,” Charleston Law Review, 2008

• Robert J. Delahunty and John Yoo
Executive Power v. International Law,” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 2006

• Jide Nzelibe and John Yoo
Rational War and Constitutional Design,” Yale Law Journal Symposium, 2006

• John C. Yoo and Robert J. Delahunty
The President’s Constitutional Authority to Conduct Military Operations Against Terrorist Organizations and the Nations that Harbor or Support Them,” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 2002

• John Yoo
UN Wars, US War Powers,” Chicago Journal of International Law, 2000

• John Yoo
Sounds of Sovereignty: Defining Federalism in the 1990s,” Indiana Law Review, 1998
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Just War

• Greg Miller
In interview, Yemeni president acknowledges approving U.S. drone strikes

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• David Luban
America’s Illicit Affair with Torture (Keynote address to the National Consortium of Torture Treatment Programs)

• Various Authors
Letter from 28 Retired Generals and Admirals to President Obama Calling on Him to Support Efforts to Declassify the SSCI study on CIA Interrogation
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National Security

China has no cyber-war troops: spokesman Shanghai Daily

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